Questions on Selenium

dual screen, programming, coding

1. What is Automation Testing? 

Automation testing is the process of testing the software using an automation tool to seek out the defects. During this process, executing the test scripts and generating the results are performed automatically by automation tools.

2. What are the benefits of Automation Testing?

  • Saves time and money. Automation testing is quicker in execution.
  • Reusability of code. Create just one occasion and execute multiple times with less or no maintenance.
  • Easy reporting. It generates automatic reports after test execution.
  • Easy for compatibility testing. It enables parallel execution within the combination of various OS and browser.
  • Low-cost maintenance. it’s cheaper compared to manual testing at the end of the day.
  • Automated testing is more reliable.
  • Automated testing is more powerful and versatile. It is mostly used for regression testing.
  • Supports execution of repeated test cases. Minimal manual intervention. Test scripts are often run unattended.
  • Maximum coverage. It helps to extend the test coverage.

3. What type of tests have you automated?

Our main focus is to automate test cases to do Regression testing, Smoke testing, and Sanity testing. Sometimes based on the project and the test time estimation, we do focus on End to End testing. 

4. How many test cases you have automated per day? 

It depends on Test case scenario complexity and length. I did automate 2-5 test scenarios per day when the complexity is limited. Sometimes just 1 or fewer test scenarios in a day when the complexity is high. 

5. What is a Framework?

A framework defines a set of rules or best practices which we can follow in a systematic way to achieve the desired results. There are different types of automation frameworks and the most common ones are:Data Driven Testing Framework 
Keyword Driven Testing Framework • Hybrid Testing Framework 

6. Have you created any Framework? 

If you are a beginner: No, I didn’t get a chance to create a framework. I have used the framework which is already available. 
If you are an experienced tester: Yes, I have created a framework. Or I have involved in the creation of the framework. 

7. Can you explain the Framework which you have used in your Selenium Project?

Here we have clearly explained each component of Framework. 

8. Why do you prefer Selenium Automation Tool?

Free and open source
Have large user base and helping communities Cross-browser compatibility Platform compatibility
Multiple programming languages support 

9. What is Selenium?

Selenium is an open-source (free) automated testing suite to test web applications. It supports different platforms and browsers. It has gained a lot of popularity in terms of web-based automated testing and giving a great competition to the famous commercial tool HP QTP (Quick Test Professional) AKA HP UFT (Unified Functional Testing). Selenium is a set of different software tools. Each tool has a different approach to support web-based automation testing. It has four components namely 
Selenium IDE (Integrated Development Environment) 
Selenium RC (Remote Control) – selenium 1Selenium WebDriver – selenium 2 & 3 
Selenium Grid 

10. What is Selenium IDE?

Selenium IDE (Integrated Development Environment) is a Firefox plugin. It is the simplest framework in the Selenium Suite. It allows us to record and playback the scripts. Even though we can create scripts using Selenium IDE, we need to use Selenium RC or Selenium WebDriver to write more advanced and robust test cases. 

11. What is Selenese?

Selenese is the language which is used to write test scripts in Selenium IDE. 

12. Which is the only browser that supports Selenium IDE to be used?


13. What is Selenium RC?

Selenium RC AKA Selenium 1. Selenium RC was the main Selenium project for a long time before the WebDriver merge brought up Selenium 2. Selenium 1 is still actively supported (in maintenance mode). It relies on JavaScript for automation. It supports Java,
Javascript, Ruby, PHP, Python, Perl and C#. It supports almost every browser out there. 

14. What is Selenium WebDriver?

Selenium WebDriver AKA Selenium 2 is a browser automation-framework that accepts commands and sends them to a browser. It is implemented through a browser-specific driver. It controls the browser by directly communicating with it. Selenium WebDriver supports Java, C#, PHP, Python, Perl, Ruby. 

15. What is Selenium Grid? 

Selenium Grid is a tool used together with Selenium RC to run tests on different machines against different browsers in parallel. That is, running multiple tests at the same time against different machines running different browsers and operating systems. 
In simple words, it is used to distribute your test execution on multiple platforms and environments concurrently. 

16. When do you use Selenium Grid?

Selenium Grid can be used to execute the same or different test scripts on multiple platforms and browsers concurrently so as to achieve distributed test execution

17. What are the advantages of Selenium Grid?

It allows running test cases in parallel thereby saving test execution time.
It allows multi-browser testing
It allows us to execute test cases on multi-platform 

18. What is a hub in Selenium Grid?

A hub is a server or a central point that controls the test executions on different machines. 

19. What is a node in the Selenium Grid?

Node is the machine which is attached to the hub. There can be multiple nodes in Selenium Grid. 

20. What are the types of WebDriver APIs available in Selenium? 

Firefox Driver 
Gecko Driver
InternetExplorer Driver 
Chrome Driver
HTMLUNIT Driver • Opera Driver
Safari Driver 
Android Driver 
iPhone Driver

21. Which WebDriver implementation claims to be the fastest?

The fastest implementation of WebDriver is the HTMLUnitDriver. It is because the HTMLUnitDriver does not execute tests in the browser. 

22. What are the Programming Languages supported by Selenium WebDiver?


23. What are the Operating Systems supported by Selenium WebDriver?

Windows Linux 

24. What are the Open-source Frameworks supported by Selenium WebDriver?


25. What are the Locators available in Selenium? Different types of locators are:

ID –ClassName – Name – 
TagName –LinkText –PartialLinkText – 
XPath –
CSS Selector – 

26. What is a XPath?

XPath is used to locate the elements. Using XPath, we could navigate through elements and attributes in an XML document to locate web elements such as textbox, button, checkbox, Image etc., in a web page 

27. What is the difference between “/” and “//”

Single Slash “/” – Single slash is used to create XPath with absolute path i.e. the XPath would be created to start selection from the document node/start node. Double Slash “//” – Double slash is used to create XPath with relative path i.e. the XPath would be created to start selection from anywhere within the document. 

28. What is the difference between the Absolute Path and Relative Path?

Absolute XPath starts from the root node and ends with desired descendant element’s node. It starts with top HTML node and ends with input node. It starts with a single forward-slash(/) as shown below. 
Relative XPath starts from any node in between the HTML page to the current element’s node(last node of the element). It starts with a single forward slash(//) as shown below. 

29. What is the difference between Assert and Verify in Selenium?

Assert: In simple words, if the assert condition is true then the program control will execute the next test step but if the condition is false, the execution will stop and further test step will not be executed.
Verify: In simple words, there won’t be any halt in the test execution even though the verify condition is true or false. For detailed post check the below link. 

30. What are Soft Assert and Hard Assert in Selenium?

Soft Assert: Soft Assert collects errors during @Test Soft Assert does not throw an exception when an assert fails and would continue with the next step after the assert statement 

Hard Assert: Hard Assert throws an AssertException immediately when an assert statement fails and test suite continues with next @Test 

31. What are the verification points available in Selenium?

In Selenium IDE, we use Selenese Verify and Assert Commands as Verification points 
In Selenium WebDriver, there is no built-in features for verification points. It totally depends on our coding style. some of the Verification points are
To check for the page title
To check for certain text 
To check for a certain element (text box, button, drop-down, etc.

32. How to launch a browser using Selenium WebDriver? WebDriver is an Interface. We create Object of a WebDriver Interface.

<2.53 – no geckodriver 
3.x – geckodriver for FF 

To launch Firefox Driver: WebDriver driver = new FirefoxDriver(); 
To launch Chrome Driver: WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver(); 
To launch Internet Explorer Driver: WebDriver driver = new InternetExplorerDriver(); 

33. Is the FirefoxDriver a Class or an Interface?

FirefoxDriver is a Java class, and it implements the WebDriver interface.

34. What is the super interface of WebDriver? 


35. Explain the line of code Webdriver driver = new FirefoxDriver(); ?

‘WebDriver‘ is an interface and we are creating an object reference of type WebDriver instantiating an object of FirefoxDriver class. 

36. We do create a reference variable ‘driver’ of type WebDriver

WebDriver driver = new FirefoxDriver(); 
instead of creating 
FirefoxDriver driver = new FirefoxDriver();
WebDriver driver = new FirefoxDriver(); 
instead of creating
FirefoxDriver driver = new FirefoxDriver(); 
What is the purpose of doing this way? 
if we create a reference variable driver of type WebDriver then we 
could use the same driver variable to work with any browser of our choice such as IEDriver, SafariDriver etc.
//FirefoxDriver driver = new FirefoxDriver(); ChromeDriver driver = new ChromeDriver(); driver.get(“”); 

WebDriver driver = new FirefoxDriver(); 

37. What are the different exceptions you have faced in Selenium WebDriver?


38. How To Login Into Any Site If It Is Showing Any Authentication Pop-Up For Username And Password?

To do this we pass username and password with the URL http://username:password@url
e.g. http://admin:[email protected] 

39. What are the types of waits available in Selenium WebDriver?

In Selenium we could see three types of waits such as Implicit Waits, Explicit Waits and Fluent Waits.
Implicit Waits – 
Explicit Waits – 
Fluent Waits –
Thread.sleep() – static wait 

40. What is Implicit Wait In Selenium WebDriver?

Implicit waits tell to the WebDriver to wait for a certain amount of time before it throws an exception. Once we set the time, 
WebDriver will wait for the element based on the time we set before it throws an exception. The default setting is 0 (zero). We need to set some wait time to make WebDriver to wait for the required time. 

41. What is WebDriver Wait In Selenium WebDriver?

WebDriverWait is applied on a certain element with defined expected condition and time. This wait is only applied to the specified element. This wait can also throw an exception when an element is not found. 

42. What is Fluent Wait In Selenium WebDriver?

FluentWait can define the maximum amount of time to wait for a specific condition and frequency with which to check the condition before throwing an “ElementNotVisibleException” exception. 

43. How to input text in the text box using Selenium WebDriver?

By using sendKeys() method WebDriver driver = new FirefoxDriver(); driver.get(“”); 

44. How to input text in the text box without calling the sendKeys()?

// To initialize js object
JavascriptExecutor JS = (JavascriptExecutor)driver; 
// To enter username 
JS.executeScript(“document.getElementById(‘User’).value=test.c o m'”); 

45. How to clear the text in the text box using Selenium WebDriver?

By using clear() method
WebDriver driver = new FirefoxDriver(); 
driver.get(“”); driver.findElement(By.xpath(“xpath_of_element1”)).sendKeys(“Sftware Testing Material Website”); driver.findElement(By.xpath(“xpath_of_element1”)).clear(); 

46. How to get a text of a web element?

By using getText() method 

47. How to get an attribute value using Selenium WebDriver?

By using getAttribute(value); 

48. How to click on a hyperlink using Selenium WebDriver?

We use click() method in Selenium to click on the hyperlink 

driver.findElement(By.linkText(“Software Testing Material Website”)).click();
1 driver.findElement(By.linkText(“Software Testing Material Website”)).click(); 

49. How to submit a form using Selenium WebDriver?

We use “submit” method on an element to submit a form driver.findElement(“form_1”)).submit(); 
Alternatively, you can use click method on the element which does form submission 

50. How to press the ENTER key on text box In Selenium WebDriver?

To press ENTER key using Selenium WebDriver, We need to use Selenium Enum Keys with its constant ENTER. 

51. How to pause a test execution for 5 seconds at a specific point? 

By using java.lang.Thread.sleep(long milliseconds) method we could pause the execution for a specific time. To pause 5 seconds, we need to pass parameter as 5000 (5 seconds) Thread.sleep(5000) 

52. Is Selenium Server needed to run Selenium WebDriver Scripts?

When we are distributing our Selenium WebDriver scripts to execute using Selenium Grid, we need to use Selenium Server. 

53. What happens if I run this command. driver.get(“”) ;

An exception is thrown. We need to pass HTTP protocol within driver.get() method. driver.get(“”); 1 driver.get(“”); 

54. What is the alternative to driver.get() method to open an URL using Selenium WebDriver?

An alternative method to driver.get(“url”) method is“url”) 

55. What is the difference between driver.get() and“url”)?

driver.get(): To open an URL and it will wait till the whole page gets loaded
driver.navigate.get(): To navigate to an URL and It will not wait till the whole page gets loaded 

56. Can I navigate back and forth in a browser in Selenium WebDriver?

We use Navigate interface to do navigate back and forth in a browser. It has methods to move back, forward as well as to refresh a page. 

driver.navigate().forward(); – to navigate to the next web page with reference to the browser’s history 
driver.navigate().back(); – takes back to the previous webpage with reference to the browser’s history driver.navigate().refresh(); – to refresh the current web page thereby reloading all the web elements
driver.navigate().to(“url”); – to launch a new web browser window and navigate to the specified URL 

57. What are the different types of navigation commands?

Refer above question (Can I navigate back and forth in a browser) 

58. How to fetch the current page URL in Selenium?

To fetch the current page URL, we use getCurrentURL()driver.getCurrentUrl(); 

59. How can we maximize the browser window in Selenium?

To maximize the browser window in selenium we use maximize() method. This method maximizes the current window if it is not already maximized 


60. How to delete cookies in Selenium?

To delete cookies we use deleteAllCookies() method driver.manage().deleteAllCookies(); 

61. What are the ways to refresh a browser using Selenium WebDriver?

There are multiple ways to refresh a page in selenium 

Using driver.navigate().refresh() command as mentioned in the question 45
Using driver.get(“URL”) on the current URL or using 
Using driver.navigate().to(“URL”) on the current URL or driver.navigate().to(driver.getCurrentUrl());
Using sendKeys(Keys.F5) on any textbox on the webpage 

62. What is the difference between driver.getWindowHandle() and driver.getWindowHandles() in Selenium WebDriver?

driver.getWindowHandle() – It returns a handle of the current page (a unique identifier) 
driver.getWindowHandles() – It returns a set of handles of the all the pages available. 

63. What is the difference between driver.close() and driver.quit() methods?

Purpose of these two methods (driver.close and driver.quit) is almost the same. Both allow us to close a browser but still, there is a difference. 
driver.close(): To close current WebDriver instance driver.quit(): To close all the opened WebDriver instances 

64. What is the difference between driver.findElement() and driver.findElements() commands?

The difference between driver.findElement() and driver.findElements() commands is- 

findElement() returns a single WebElement (found first) based on the locator passed as parameter. Whereas findElements() returns a list of WebElements, all satisfying the locator value passed.
Syntax of findElement()-
WebElement textbox = driver.findElement(“textBoxLocator”)); 
Syntax of findElements()-
List elements = element.findElements(“value”)); 
Another difference between the two is- if no element is found then findElement() throws NoSuchElementException whereas findElements() returns a list of 0 elements. 
List list = driver.findElements(By.tagName(“a”)); Sop(list.size()); ==40 

65. How to select a value in a dropdown?

By using Select class WebElement mySelectElement = driver.findElement(“dropdown”)); 
Select dropdown = new Select(mySelectElement); 
dropdown.selectByVisibleText(Text); dropdown.selectByIndex(Index); dropdown.selectByValue(Value); 

66. How to capture Screenshot in Selenium WebDriver?

By using TakesScreenshot Interface
In Selenium 3, we may face a few issues while capturing 
Screenshots. To overcome we use aShot utility.

67. How to mouse hover on a web element using WebDriver? By using Actions class

WebElement ele = driver.findElement(By.xpath(“xpath”)); //Create object ‘action’ of an Actions class 
Actions action = new Actions(driver); //Mouseover on an element 

68. How can we handle web-based pop-up?

To handle alerts popups we need to do switch to the alert window and call Selenium WebDriver Alert API methods. 

69. How can we handle windows based pop up?

Selenium doesn’t support windows based applications. It is an automation testing tool which supports only web application testing. We could handle windows based popups in Selenium using some third-party tools such as AutoIT, SIKULI, Robot class etc. 

70. How to handle hidden elements in Selenium WebDriver?

It is one of the most important selenium interview questions. 
We can handle hidden elements by using javaScript executor

71. How to find more than one web element in the list?

// To store the list
List <WebElement> eleList = driver.findElements(By.xpath(“xpath”));

// To fetch the size of the list
int listSize = eleList.size();

//for loop
for (int i=0; i<listSize; i++)

// Clicking on each link
// Navigating back to the previous page that stores the links


72. How to read a JavaScript variable in Selenium WebDriver?

By using JavascriptExecutor

// To initialize the JS object.

JavascriptExecutor JS = (JavascriptExecutor) webdriver;

// To get the site title.

String title = (String)JS.executeScript(“return document.title”);

System.out.println(“Title of the webpage : ” + title);

73. How do you read test data from excels?

Test data can efficiently be read from excel using JXL or POI API. POI API has many advantages than JXL.

74. Is it possible to automate the captcha using Selenium?

No, It’s not possible to automate captcha and bar code reader.

75. List some scenarios which we cannot automate using Selenium WebDriver?

1. Bitmap comparison Is not possible using Selenium WebDriver
2. Automating Captcha is not possible using Selenium WebDriver
3. We can not read bar code using Selenium WebDriver
4. windows OS based pop ups
5. third party calendars/element
6. Image
7. Word/PDF

76. What is Object Repository in Selenium WebDriver?

Object Repository is used to store element locator values in a centralized location instead of hard coding them
within the scripts. We do create a property file (.properties) to store all the element locators and these
property files act as an object repository in Selenium WebDriver.

77. How can you use the Recovery Scenario in Selenium WebDriver?

By using “Try Catch Block” within Selenium WebDriver Java tests.
try {
}catch(Exception e){

78. How to Upload a file in Selenium WebDriver?

There are two cases which are majorly used to upload a file in Selenium WebDriver such as using
SendKeys Method and using AutoIT Script.
Browser Button – type =“file”
SendKeys (c:\\test\\naveen.jpg);

79. How to Download a file in Selenium WebDriver?

By using AutoIT script, we could download a file in Selenium WebDriver.

80. How to run Selenium WebDriver Test from the command line?

Class A{
cd c
c: javac
c: java
java org.testng.TestNG C:\Users \Desktop\ \workspace\testing\testng.xml

81. How to switch between frames in Selenium?

By using the following code, we could switch between frames.

82. How to connect a Database in selenium?

As we all know Selenium WebDriver is a tool to automate User Interface. We could only interact with Browser
using Selenium WebDriver.
We use JDBC Driver to connect the Database in Selenium (While using Java Programming Language).

83. How To Resize Browser Window Using Selenium WebDriver?

To resize the browser window to particular dimensions, we use ‘Dimension’ class to resize the browser
//Create object of Dimensions class
Dimension d = new Dimension(480,620);
//Resize the current window to the given dimension

84. How To Scroll Web Page Down Or UP Using Selenium WebDriver?

JavaScript scrollBy() method scrolls the document by the specified number of pixels.

85. How To Perform Right Click Action (Context Click) In Selenium WebDriver?

We use Actions class in Selenium WebDriver to do Right-Click (Context Click) action.

86. How To Perform Double Click Action In Selenium WebDriver?

We use Actions class to do Double click action in selenium.

87. How To Perform Drag And Drop Action in Selenium WebDriver?

We use Actions class to do Drag And Drop Action

88. How To Highlight Element Using Selenium WebDriver?

By using JavascriptExecutor interface, we could highlight the specified element

89. How to load “Batch file & Exe file ” in selenium web driver?

Exe file:
IWebDriver driver = new
Batch/exe file:
Process process=Runtime.getRuntime.exec(“file path of exe or .bat files”);
How to perform Right Click on elements in selenium?
Right click action in Selenium web driver can be done using Actions class. Right Click operation is also
called Context Click in Selenium. Pre-defined method context click provided by Actions class is used
to perform right click operation. Below is the code to demonstrate right click operation using Actions
Actions actions = new Actions(driver);
WebElement elementLocator = driver.findElement(“ID”));

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